MBA Research

Action Briefs

We learn a lot from the business community and want to share that with you in our Action Briefs that highlight business trends and their impact on the workplace and curriculum.

Or maybe just your little corner of the world? While not a new concept, social enterprises are on the rise and our global culture is adjusting to make room for them. Social enterprises are designed to address identified social problems and can be classified as either for profit or not-for-profit. Some sources indicate that 25% of all new small businesses start as social enterprises. Entrepreneurs want to start them, workers (especially millennials) want to be employed by them, and increasing numbers of consumers want to patronize them. The increase in social enterprises is even making some more-established businesses rethink their corporate social responsibility efforts and policies.

B Lab, an organization in the United States, certifies successful social ventures that have made an impact on the social mission they have selected. As of 2019, 3,000 social ventures had been certified in 71 countries around the world. B Labs requires businesses to be in operation for one year before they get certified, and also requires businesses to publish public reports that show their social and environmental performance compared to third-party standards, according to B Lab.

A business could pursue a social enterprise-like model for a variety of reasons. According to the Harvard Business Review, a social venture’s mission could mean a better ability to grow because more people would want to support the business since it also means supporting the mission.

One example is Bombas, a clothing company that donates a pair of socks to a homeless shelter for each pair of socks purchased by a customer.

Another example of a social enterprise is Hot Chicken Takeover in Columbus, Ohio. This social enterprise hires people who are homeless, people who have been incarcerated, or people who are perhaps caught in the cycle of addiction. Not only do they hire those at risk, but they also provide supportive services to help stabilize other aspects of their lives.

Younger generations want to give their money to businesses that want to make the world a better place, according to an article from Forbes. These customers want to feel like they are supporting their communities. If a local venture’s mission is to invest into community organizations and issues, that venture’s mission aligns with these customers’ values.

There are several different types of social ventures. One type is the one-to-one model, like Bombas or TOMS, which gives a pair of shoes to people in need for every pair of shoes sold. TOMS has also promised to donate $1 for every $3 it makes.

Other social ventures do not operate under a one-to-one model, but either give money to causes they support or make pledges to be environmentally sustainable. One example of this type of business is outdoor-clothing company Patagonia. Patagonia has given itself a 1% “self-imposed Earth Tax” since 1985 and donated that money to environmental groups who support protecting the natural environment. Patagonia has said it has given $89 million in social causes under this social venture model.

Challenges in Social Enterprise

Social enterprise startups face many of the same hurdles as non-social enterprise startups. But they are also faced with additional challenges in finding investment funds and managing their revenue producing venture, along with their social venture. Certain types of social ventures are required to provide metrics—often referred to as social return on investment (SROI), which can be complicated and time-consuming. Social entrepreneurs also face a fairly high rate of burnout. On the other hand, a large part of almost any venture is the willingness to learn from initial failures. So many social entrepreneurs come back for more and are finding success a second or even the third time around.

In Real Time

It wouldn’t feel right to end this Action Brief without mentioning some of the things that businesses are doing right now to help ease the pain of COVID-19 in their communities: Distilleries are making hand sanitizer, Keen is giving away 10,000 pairs of shoes to frontline workers and others, and Amazon donated $1 million to a new Seattle Foundation fund for people in that region affected by COVID-19.

Classroom Implications:

Consider asking students what they would do if they were going to start their own social venture. Ask them to think about what social mission they would support. Why would they choose one social mission over the other? After they have selected a social mission, ask how they would sustain the business. What product or service would they sell? Would it be a one-to-one business like Bombas? Or would it be more similar to Patagonia, who gives a percentage of money to support causes it believes in? Click here for a more detailed description of different types of social ventures.

Links for further learning:

Personal branding—is everyone doing it? The answer is most likely yes—even if we are not being intentional about it. Managing one’s personal brand, especially in the form of an online presence, is almost obligatory in today’s professional world.

In the past, personal branding was thought of more as reputation management—and was something that politicians and high-profile personalities and executives considered, but not so much the rest of us. But with today’s plethora of online communication tools, personal brands are much more widely developed and easier to ascertain.

Implications for Business

Employers are using information accessed through personal brands to help with recruiting. Some use the information to find candidates that are aligned with their goals and values. In the current hiring climate, where many job postings receive hundreds of applicants, a personal brand can help employers narrow their focus. They can more easily find the candidates who are the best fit. A personal brand can demonstrate a potential employee’s interests, initiative, and drive. Also, an employee who has a strong personal brand will most likely represent the company’s brand well, too.

Job seekers, likewise, can use personal brand to attract employers’ attention and interest. A strong personal brand helps candidates stand out and puts their best traits in the forefront. Recruiters often use social media to find potential employees, so a profile that promotes a personal brand can be beneficial. Also, the actions taken to build a personal brand can be valuable work experience. For example, if a job seeker writes a blog to build his/her brand, that skill might come in handy for a future position.

Entrepreneurs need to understand and build personal brands, perhaps more than anyone else. Often, an entrepreneur’s personal brand and company brand are one and the same. A great example of this is Seth Godin, a writer, entrepreneur, and marketing guru famous partly because of the personal brand he built through his blogs and various websites. When trying to build a company and increase a customer base, entrepreneurs need to promote themselves and the purpose of their companies. This can help them to grow and attract investors.

While it is clear that a personal brand can benefit individuals and businesses alike, it also presents challenges. If someone’s personal brand doesn’t resonate with a certain audience, it could alienate customers or employers who otherwise might have considered working with that individual. S/He may be counted out before being given a fair chance. Personal branding also brings risks when it comes to maintaining the brand image over time. If you do not actively work to build your brand, or if you make a mistake or engage in something unsavory, your personal brand could be damaged irreparably. Finally, building a personal brand takes time, effort, and sometimes financial resources. It may not be worth the return on investment.

Implications for the Classroom

A personal brand is the way someone promotes and establishes him/herself to be marketable to employers, clients, colleagues, and other audiences. It can also be a tool for communicating your core beliefs and values. Your personal brand is the way people remember and recognize your identity. It is influenced by the person’s focus and goals. A strong personal brand can help you stand out. It sets individuals apart from the crowd when they are seeking a job, obtaining clients, networking, or growing their careers in other ways. Personal brand is conveyed in the way a person presents him/herself visually, in his/her communication, and in his/her actions. Social media plays a large part in crafting personal brand through the content that is posted and shared.

Students should consider the personal brand they are already building. Is it one that would be attractive to employers? Why or why not? Students should also consider ways they can start to build a personal brand now. Encourage students to think about people with strong personal brands and how these brands have led to success. Students should also discuss the negative effects of the current emphasis on personal branding. Is personal branding genuine? Does it reduce a person’s individuality and personality?

To help students consider their own personal brand, have them form groups of two, with each partner sharing their perception of the others’ personal brand. Students can also share ideas about how to promote certain aspects of one’s personal brand.

To learn more about personal branding, consider the following resources:

Reader Comments

Rusty Poeppelmeier, a Bond Manager with Liberty Mutual Surety in Cincinnati, Ohio had the following comments after reading our Action Brief on personal branding: 

The proliferation of social media has provided new platforms and made it easier for individuals to brand themselves.  LinkedIn has also digitized the résumé and made it easy for job seekers and fillers to connect.  For students, the most important thing is to avoid branding themselves with a virtual livestock brand—a permanent mark that follows you everywhere.  Overstating your experience and skill set can be equally as problematic.  A good interviewer will easily see right through that so don’t assume you can slip it past them.  It is all too easy to make a joke or comment that could come back to haunt your image later that can’t be taken back.  It is easy to be pulled into the politics of the time but hard to explain a profanity-laced rant five years later in an interview. 

I would learn to use these new tools to brand yourself in a positive light rather than turning it into a report card on the quality of your opinion and temperament.  What you choose to not say is just as important as what you do say.  It is also a good personal report card on how well you collaborate and communicate.  You can’t win your way in the board room with intimidation or profanities.  It might win the occasional battle but eventually you will sink your brand like the Titanic.

Do you have questions or comments? If so, drop me a line at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

No business, regardless of size, is immune from mistakes, accidents, or even crises that can affect day-to-day operations. In extreme cases, these incidents can even threaten the very existence of a company or brand. Although the possibility of such events is not new, the speed at which information travels is ever-increasing. The fact that news can elicit reactions worldwide in a matter of seconds leads to heightened risk and sensitivity when responding to these crises. However, the same social media platforms that amplify and give voice to these reactions also provide the opportunity for quick and constant communications throughout the crisis management process.

One PR management firm suggests that “59% of businesses have experienced a crisis, but only 54% of businesses have a plan in place to deal with them.” While preparation is crucial in managing controversy, the types of crises businesses encounter are unforeseen. Whether it is an exploding shoe on a soon-to-be-pro athlete or a data breach affecting millions of customers, a matter of seconds can threaten the short- and long-term health of a company. When these events do occur, quick-thinking and response times are critical to managing an onslaught of online criticism. A consensus among PR firms recommends that two rules be followed throughout the response: be quick and be human.

The need to respond quickly can be a double-edged sword, however. Respond too slowly and a company risks allowing online reaction to shape the story; respond too quickly and risk making statements before all the facts are known. It can be trickier still to assess whether an event requires a response at all. The last thing a company wants is to extend the life of a story that would have otherwise been short-lived. Unfortunately, there is no clearly defined test to determine which problems are likely to stick around and which are temporary wrinkles of the ever-shifting landscape of social media.

When an event does merit an official response, companies sometimes struggle to respond with an appropriate measure of even-handedness and decency. Sometimes, defensiveness or overreaction can bring on additional difficulty. The routine advice to “be human” means trying to establish some empathy with the people affected by the crisis. While some online vitriol is part performance, some reaction comes from sincere offense or hurt. One of the worst things that a company can do is belittle those expressions. Insisting that concerns are unwarranted or that pushback is an overreaction never helps the healing process and can significantly exacerbate the problem.

There are best practices and strategies for what steps to take in the aftermath of a crisis. While many PR firms and crisis management companies offer slight variations on the theme, the general approach involves these steps:

  • Acknowledge. Ignoring or attempting to cover up a crisis will only make matters worse. Speed and transparency are crucial here. State clearly that the company is aware that an issue has occurred and that information will be provided as it becomes available.
  • Apologize. Not only is it OK to apologize—it’s a must. Even if there is internal debate about whether the company is to blame for the incident, taking some responsibility is easy to do—and when done quickly, can sometimes nip a problem in the bud. On the other hand, apologizing late can be costly.
  • Investigate. People want assurances that steps will be taken to “get to the bottom” of what has occurred. Letting the public know that an investigation into the incident has already begun can also have the effect of buying some time to develop a full response, if needed.
  • Act. This final step may be the most important. It’s one thing to release a marketing campaign that promises change, it’s another to actually enact those changes. People will be looking for evidence of it; and subsequent crises that suggest “business as usual” can really set as wave of negative reactions in motion.

It may be useful to see some of these strategies at work. Nike’s swift response to Zion Williamson’s shoe explosion closely follows the first three steps and promises the fulfilment of the fourth. On the other hand, in April of 2017, United Airlines waited a day before responding to a customer being dragged off one of its airplanes. By the time the airline issued a statement, the viral video had already been viewed millions of times, and United had to scramble to try to stay ahead of the story.

Classroom Implications

There are a number of useful lessons that students can take away from this topic. Perhaps the most important for their future success is a lesson about what (not) to share on social media. Business leaders can share countless example of well-qualified candidates who were not offered a job after a quick check of their social media accounts. Furthermore, publically posting negative comments about current employers can easily cost people their jobs. Negative posts like these could create a crisis similar to those mentioned above. Students need to ascertain employer policies about use of social media, whether it be a personal or a company account. One way to teach these lessons to students is to link their current use of social media to the kind of problems that companies have had with these platforms.

Most students today are all-too-familiar with the ins and outs of social media. Many of them will have had an experience online that they felt the need to respond to or make amends for. As long as ground rules are set about respect for classmates and what subjects are in-bounds, it can be a very useful exercise to ask them about their strategies for responding to social-media accidents or the online “crises” that they have seen. How did they attempt to put out the fires of their own mistakes? How did their friends respond? These kinds of questions can really help establish a connection between students’ lives and the business world they encounter.

Have you ever thought: “If I just didn’t have to spend so much time on (insert dull, routine tasks here), I’d have time to really excel at my job”? Soon, many of those mundane activities will become automated. Automation saves time, effort, and money. The ability to automate tasks and processes is increasingly important to businesses’ efficiency and competitiveness. Plus, with advances in technology, it’s becoming much easier to do so.

What does automation look like?

The level of automation varies, depending on technology and the complexity of the tasks. It could be as simple as setting automatic replies to emails, or as complex as programming robotic process automation software to analyze data. About half of the activities that workers do today have the potential to be automated. Current technologies are best suited for routine tasks that require little creativity or higher level thinking. These include physical labor, data processing, and data collection.

Who does it affect?

The first fully-automated businesses have emerged—businesses that have no human employees at all. Read more about these businesses here: While this isn’t possible for most companies, automation has affected or will affect most occupations and industries. Financial services, customer service, manufacturing, and health care will be particularly impacted. Employees at all levels, even at the highest levels, will see their jobs change due to automation.

In a recent focus group with executives from the financial industry in Kentucky, a debate broke out about the future of bank tellers. Some in the group felt the job would become fully automated; others saw an even more important role for tellers beyond automation. The Wall Street Journal frames the issue by identifying a trend in which some bank tellers are getting raises as they deal with higher level consumer issues. OceanFirst now has a “certified digital banker” course to help tellers become more comfortable with automation and prepare themselves to help customers address increasingly complex financial issues.

The idea that jobs will be replaced by automation has sparked fear. It is true that 15% of the global workforce could be displaced by 2030 due to automation. However, only about 5% of occupations could be fully automated with current technology. It is much more likely that certain tasks will become automated, freeing up workers’ time to be more creative and strategic. Less than half of all companies expect to decrease their workforces due to automation in the next five years. Furthermore, many new jobs and industries will be created, leading to labor demand growth of 21–33% of the workforce. The growth will presumably offset any jobs lost. Around 3% of the workforce will need to change their occupations by 2030 to fill the opportunities created by automation.

Benefits of automation

  • Improved efficiency
  • Reduction of errors
  • Better understanding and use of data
  • Reduced costs
  • Ability to focus on higher level tasks, creativity, and innovation

Challenges to implementing automation

  • Mastering the technology
  • Retraining workforce
  • Cost
  • Integration with existing processes and systems
  • Resistance to change

What should businesses do to prepare?

  • Fully understand the processes that are being automated
  • Involve everyone who will be affected
  • Plan ahead
  • Focus on biggest opportunities for ROI
  • Consider security risks
  • Stay dynamic and promote growth
  • Invest in education, learning, and retraining employees
  • Develop employees’ higher cognitive skills, social and emotional intelligence, and technological abilities

For more:

Classroom Implications

Students should understand the ways that jobs are going to change with widespread automation. This will help them focus on developing the skills that will become even more important in the workforce. These include creativity, interpersonal communication, emotional intelligence, and strategic thinking—as well as the technological skills to work with automation.

Links for further learning:

Rusty Poeppelmeier, A Bond Manager with Liberty Mutual Surety in Cincinnati, Ohio shared the comments below in relation to this Action Brief. Do you have other thoughts, or questions for Rusty? Let us know—we’ll keep the conversation going!

Automation will continue to move into different areas of the economy.  It is important students understand it isn’t all bad.  Some areas of the economy have historical labor shortages that are ripe for the investment of more automation.  I have seen it move into areas such as a farming and customer service. 

There are other areas where automation may create significant cost savings that ultimately could be passed on to the consumer.  The more complex the task the longer it will take to implement but the payoffs could also be larger.  Picking fruit in a variety of conditions is going to be more challenging than painting the same object over and over again in a controlled environment.  

We also have a demographic issue with the baby boomers headed into retirement creating a labor shortage.  So there will likely be job opportunities in this area, as the need for this technology will increase during the coming years.  That said, there is a cost to implementing this technology and one of the items difficult to overcome is change.  It takes the average industry a long time to adapt and change partly due to the cost of development and implementation.  Sometimes implementation does not work out as planned.  Customer service being one example.  Some things are not quite ready for AI but with time and resources those challenges can be overcome. 

I think the biggest piece of advice I have would be don’t let the pursuit of automation or process efficiency undermine the success of whatever business you are in.  It is very easy to start down this path and compromise too much ultimately putting the business itself at risk.  Change is hard but blind change is deadly. 

A supposed great system with a dwindling customer base has the same probability of failure as a poorly managed business.  So don’t let the pursuit of automation or a “better” process cause you to lose sight of the business itself.  If it is truly a great idea, you won’t have to sell it.  People like to finish things and claim success but don’t be blind to the reality of the actual needs of your customers.  Remember, you need the customer, the customer doesn’t need you!

Have you heard the phrase “the Internet of Things” and wondered what exactly it meant? This term has grown increasingly popular in the last five years and is an important one to know. The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the digitalization and connectivity of any item or device. Your smart phone and laptop aren’t the only things that can connect to the Internet anymore. Anything from your refrigerator to your lightbulbs can be enabled with internet access and controlled wirelessly. These types of devices have been around for several years now: smart watches, at-home security systems controlled via app, and virtual assistants such as Amazon Alexa and Siri are now in millions of homes.

However, the future of IoT goes way beyond what we see today, and that future is coming soon. According to a HubSpot report, there will be 31 billion IoT devices in the world by the year 2020—more than four for every person on earth. Clearly, Internet-enabled devices are here to stay, and the possibilities are endless. Businesses that can capitalize on this trend will be better prepared for a future where everything is connected. IoT is already impacting business in several key areas.

Product development. Almost any business has the potential to add internet connectivity (and, therefore, interactivity) to its products. Appliances such washing machines and dryers, coffee machines, and cash registers are being programmed to sense and respond to the environment around them. Medical devices, factory equipment, and transportation are all areas that are delving into the realm of IoT as well. Businesses that are able to find creative ways to implement IoT into existing products will be a step ahead as consumers start to expect their devices to be “smart.” Technology from companies such as Arduino make it easy for anyone to add interactivity to existing products.

Production and inventory management. Manufacturing and inventory management are already incorporating IoT. For example, sensors on packaging automatically alert employees about changes in temperature, weight, condition, etc. Also, inventory tracking can be automated, which means that companies can more efficiently get products to consumers and keep track of shipments. Order fulfilment is another aspect of the IoT that will likely be prevalent in homes within the next couple of years. The Amazon Dash Button is a Wi-Fi-connected device that automatically reorders products such as soap, toilet paper, and plastic wrap with one press. As these devices become smarter, they will be able to automatically sense when a reorder is needed. Companies will need to have the ability to manage this type of instantaneous order fulfillment.

Data. Data generation is another aspect of IoT that has massive implications for business. Every device that is connected to the internet is constantly collecting data about usage and users. For example, if a washing machine can automatically sense that your family uses a load of detergent every two months, companies could use that to market detergents to you right as you run out, giving you a promotional discount right when you need it. This type of data increases the level of customizability of marketing campaigns and the ability to directly target customers. IoT will help companies get to know their customers better than ever.

Marketing. One example of IoT in marketing is in the retail space. Technology called “beacons” send notifications to shoppers based on their location. A shopper walking by a department store might receive a notification telling her/him that the store is having a 20% off sale this weekend. This can help improve sales and get customers through the doors.

Customer relationship management. The current state of customer relations is fairly passive—customers come to companies when they have a problem, and companies attempt to solve the issues. However, with the Internet of Things, companies will know when service is needed. They can reach out and solve the issue without customer involvement or action. This will build customers’ expectations that their needs will be fulfilled before they become aware of them.

Increased efficiency. The Internet of Things also offers companies improved internal efficiency in areas such as energy savings, employee effort, and productivity. Businesses can monitor processes and operations digitally, determining where productivity and costs can be made more efficient.

Need for employees. If the Internet of Things becomes as prevalent in the workplace as anticipated, most companies will likely see a need for fewer employees than they currently have. Many of the routine tasks completed by people will become automated. Meanwhile, employees who are skilled in IoT processes and knowledge will become more valuable.

Security concerns. The Internet of Things, with all of its benefits, also leaves us more vulnerable to hackers and malware. As the Internet of Things amasses more information about people and businesses, this information becomes vulnerable to hackers. It is important to consider the country (or countries) in which the product is made. Many supply chains are global, but regulations around technology are local. Products are often not made with security features in mind, which can save time and money. This past September, California enacted the United States’ first Internet of Things security law which mandates “reasonable” security features on “smart” devices.

Classroom Implications

Ask students what types of IoT devices they have in their homes. How have these devices changed the way they live, shop, or complete routine tasks? What IoT devices are used in school or in their workplaces? Use these questions to spark a discussion about the potential for new “smart” devices. Ask students to brainstorm products that they think could be effected by the Internet of Things within the next few years. Also, lead the class in a discussion about the ways that IoT can improve business operations and efficiency.

Links for further learning:

Many companies are struggling to sell material goods to customers—or even to attract their attention. Consumers have too much “stuff” already. The sheer amount of products (and advertisements) are hard to break through. It is difficult to reach customers through traditional media, especially when the product does not offer significant value. Customers can easily and cheaply obtain the material goods they need and want. Unless a company has the lowest price and the quickest delivery, they aren’t likely to be swayed based on the products alone.

So how do brands stand out? By providing a unique experience. Experiential marketing means immersing customers within the product and allowing them to form an emotional connection with the brand. It means selling more than a material item—instead, companies are offering memories.

Over 75% of millennials prefer to spend money on experiences rather than material things. But it’s not just millennials. In the past 10-15 years, consumer spending on cars and household goods has decreased, while spending on travel, recreation, and eating out has increased. Companies such as Airbnb have bloomed because of the desire to travel and experience the world.

Social media is a significant reason why experiences are so powerful. Studies show that consumers are much more likely to support brands that offer value—and they place a high value on unique, social media—worthy experiences. People seek ways to attract attention with aesthetically—pleasing snapshots of their lives. The desire to “keep up with the Joneses” hasn’t gone away. Instead of competing with neighbors’ cars and houses, though, consumers want to show that they are having the best time at the best places.

The companies that have excelled in this area have a unique combination of physical product, experience, and brand power. Consider Starbucks. When customers spend $5 on a cup of coffee, they are getting so much more: the warm, inviting atmosphere of the coffee shop, the iconic cup emblazoned with the logo, and the feeling they get when hundreds of people “like” the photos they post of their decadent drinks.

Steve Weaver, owner of The Candle Lab, who recently spoke to High School of Business educators and MBA Research staff, understands the value of marketing an experience rather than just a product. Steve knew that people wanted candles, but the market was saturated. He decided to do something that he hadn’t seen before—offer candle lovers the experience of making their own candles. Steve has achieved great success by giving people the opportunity to have an enjoyable night out—and take home a candle, too. To learn more about selling experiences and the future of marketing, join us at Conclave 2018 in Kansas City, MO, where Steve will be our closing keynote speaker.

FRANK (which stands for “frankly speaking”) is a new brand and concept of OCBC (Oversea—Chinese Banking Corporation) in Singapore. FRANK is geared toward providing members of Gen Y with positive banking experiences. The FRANK retail store is designed to provide fun and relaxing banking experiences for customers, including the option to design their own debit and credit cards. Customers who bring in three friends to open bank accounts win $50 worth of free Ben & Jerry’s ice cream. Thanks in part to tactics such as these, OCBC already owns 26% of the total youth market in Singapore.

What can companies do to provide more experienced-based interactions with customers?

  • Figure out what sets them apart
  • Use video to create experiential-value ads
  • Engage brand ambassadors (influencers)
  • Integrate existing products with experiences

Keep in mind that while it may take a number of positive experiences to build brand loyalty, it only takes one bad experience (in many instances) to lose a customer to a different brand.

Classroom Implications

Have students provide examples of experiences that they have bought into—and shared on social media. Ask them to share why they were motivated to spend money on the experience and whether they felt it was worth it.

Ask students to take an existing product and brainstorm ways that it could be combined with an experience to make it more valuable.

Learn more:—modern—marketers—guide—to—selling—experiences/—experiences/—and—the—business—of—selling—experiences——buy—experiences—not—products

The #MeToo movement is challenging social norms and making some companies pay attention to the real risks of sexual harassment and misconduct. The media have publicized the movement, helping it obtain attention and momentum. Their coverage has encouraged people to speak out about the way they have been treated. This highlights the rampant and unaddressed problems with workplace harassment.

Companies are increasing their harassment discussion and reporting. They are working to change their policies and codes of conduct to address these concerns. Required anti-harassment training is becoming more common, both at companies and from a legislative standpoint. Entrepreneurs are developing new businesses to facilitate better harassment reporting.

Unfortunately, some people believe that the movement’s impact has been minimal. This feeling is escalated by large companies protecting themselves financially and legally by settling or covering up harassment claims, thus leaving the perpetrators largely unscathed. A recent study found that only 18% of Americans have admitted to personally changing their behavior because of the movement.

Many female employees still feel powerless because things aren’t changing quickly—particularly in low-wage environments. Self-employed workers and employees in industries such as childcare, house cleaning, and food service feel that there is nothing they can do about harassment. Federal law only covers workplaces with 15 or more employees. Short statutes of limitations and caps on damages make women wonder whether the harassment-reporting process is worth it.

Others are struggling to clarify what constitutes assault and harassment. Some men feel uncertain when socializing with female coworkers, not knowing what is considered inappropriate.

Companies are also unclear as to what punishments should be for different types of misconduct. They recognize the need for well-defined antidiscrimination policies and procedures as well as for fostering a culture of civility and respect that helps to reduce harassment. Overall, the movement is still in its early stages with its full impact yet to be seen.

What employers can do going forward

  • Work with HR professionals to create or tighten up anti-harassment policies which include an established reporting protocol for potential violations
  • Provide regular, small group training for all employees about the policies which includes information for bystanders
  • Set a company culture and tone of mutual respect and civility with zero-tolerance of harassment/discrimination
  • Encourage employees to report violations and launch formal investigations when appropriate, according to policy
  • Find advocates for employees who can separate themselves from the interests of the company

Classroom Implications

A study by the American Association of University Women found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys at the middle and high school levels have experienced some sort of sexual harassment. Talking with students about the negative effects of harassment, and promoting values centered around civility in school can help students begin to mirror the behavior that will be expected in the workplace. Teachers can use real-life scenarios and examples to help students determine what is appropriate behavior. To further the conversation, students could create a campaign to stop harassment at their school.

Discuss with students the impact of social/political movements: do they make a difference? What are worthy causes for students to take up? What are responsible ways for them to use their collective power? What are potential negative consequences of social/political movements?

Discussion Questions:

  • Why do you think it is important to talk about sexual harassment?
  • What are the consequences of sexual harassment?
  • How do you think workplaces can try to stop harassment?
  • What have you heard about the #MeToo movement? How are people around you talking about it?
  • Do you think that movements such as the #MeToo movement can impact real change? Why or why not?
  • What do you think constitutes the need to have a social/political movement?

Links for more:

One of our ExecNet members, Rusty Poeppelmeier, from Cincinnati, had this to say in response to this Action Brief:

Harassment and bullying have always been around. The only way to reduce and eliminate them is to talk about them and expose them so the social norms change to the point that people have to change. The same can be said for everything from civil rights to smoking. But talking about it is key because some people don’t recognize where the line is in their personal lives or the workplace. You have to talk about it to make the people responsible for their behavior feel uncomfortable for others to be educated. Shame is a powerful tool, but people need the opportunity and strength to talk, and others have to be willing to listen and act for real change to happen, otherwise, it becomes a partial measure that postpones the real discussion. Recent examples that come to mind are the #MeToo movement and the protests over confederate monuments and flags. Issues that could have been addressed decades ago.

Millennials have changed the optics as they are better positioned to challenge more of these behaviors. They have the support of a previous generation that has a history of challenging norms themselves. That bodes well for the future when it comes to advancing these issues and others. Maybe some believe the #MeToo movement has had minimal effect. I am certain it will have a profound impact on the future movements to come, as they will be able to more aggressively attack issues with the benefits of lessons learned from the movements that came before them. Once again, society marches forward regardless of rain, sleet, or Twitter.

By: Kristen Auletto, Research Associate

In the summer of 2016, Pokémon Go became a global phenomenon by bringing the digital world and the “real world” together. This mobile app, which was downloaded over 500 million times, is a location-based augmented reality game. Users across the world walked around their neighborhoods, holding their phone cameras up to various buildings and landmarks. They were looking for digital creatures that would appear on the screen, superimposed over their real life surroundings, that they could “catch” with the swipe of a finger. Pokémon Go faded in popularity, but the game was one of the more prominent mainstream developments in the field of augmented reality and virtual reality. The popularity of this game signified that virtual and augmented reality were about to be the next significant trend in technology.

Many people are still trying to understand what virtual reality is, and how it is different from augmented reality. According to the Virtual Reality Society, virtual reality is “a three-dimensional, computer generated environment which can be explored and interacted with by a person.” People can become immersed in the virtual world and become a part of it. Virtual reality stimulates the mind to create the illusion of reality. A person dons a headset or goggles and is transported into a new world. On the other hand, augmented reality is a blending of virtual objects in the real world. Augmented reality superimposes images onto the real world rather than creating a whole new digital world. Augmented reality often takes advantage of smart device cameras to add digital objects or effects to an image of the real world. While both of these technologies are of interest to businesses, augmented reality is much more accessible and widespread than virtual reality at this time.

Both VR and AR technology are gaining heavy investment from tech companies such as Microsoft, Facebook, Google, HTC, Lenovo, and Samsung. The industry is currently worth approximately $19 billion and is predicted to grow between 34-40% by 2023. Virtual and augmented reality are slowly becoming accessible to the mainstream public, but the technology is still too expensive for widespread use. While costs are decreasing quickly, currently affordable technology provides a lower quality experience than do costlier options.

To combat this problem, companies are developing a wide range of VR and AR options. Lower cost options use smartphones, while thousand-dollar high-performance systems are generally not for personal use. Prices have been dropping in recent months as companies struggle to compete for market share, which indicates that these devices are likely to increase in popularity.

Virtual and augmented reality have endless potential to impact the business world. Some industries, such as medicine, aerospace/defense, engineering/manufacturing, entertainment, gaming, and tourism, are well-suited for VR and AR. However, all types of businesses can benefit from this technology. It can touch almost every aspect of business, from product development to customer service to HR to sales. Organizations such as Ford, UCLA, Airbus, Snapchat, Sotheby’s, Carnival Cruises, The North Face, Marriot, and The Line are already using virtual reality in many ways.

The retail and ecommerce space has great potential to reach customers in an impactful way using virtual and augmented reality. Retailers can give shoppers the option to “try before they buy” in a completely new way. Many home furnishing companies such as Ikea and Wayfair have augmented reality apps that allow people to virtually place furniture or decorations in their homes before making a purchase, for example. Clothing, accessory, and makeup retailers are creating ways to virtually sample their products, which presents a new way to promote products and interface with customers. AliBaba and eBay have both experimented with virtual department stores, in which customers can see displays and make purchases with a nod of the head. Retailers are also using VR/AR to bring customers into traditional brick-and-mortar stores. The North Face, for example, recently used a VR headset in-store to allow customers to experience a winter landscape as they shopped for cold-weather gear.

Virtual reality has vast potential in marketing. Marketers can test displays or ads before actually creating them. Product prototypes can be developed virtually rather than using costly physical materials. It is reported that Ford saved $8 million dollars by testing new car parts virtually. Advertisements can be immersive, three-dimensional experiences that truly make products come alive to customers. VR/AR helps to build the emotional connection that marketers seek. Products and promotions can be made interactive as a way to make them stand out among the competition. 19 Crimes Wine, for example, has exploded in popularity thanks to an augmented reality app that allows each bottle’s label to come to life. Snapchat has experienced success with sponsored “lenses” that brands such as Taco Bell and Universal Pictures have used to create an augmented reality experience. These types of marketing efforts have much higher engagement and return on investment than other digital campaigns.

In human resource management, the recruiting and training process could benefit greatly from VR/AR. Potential candidates can have the chance to complete job simulations and experience the work environment without the same level of risk. The hiring process is expensive, and virtual reality can help prevent job turnover by giving candidates a realistic understanding of what jobs will be like. Virtual training can prepare new employees for their jobs in a more realistic way.

Business communications could change as well. Employees and clients across the world can use technology to host virtual meetings, conferences, and work spaces, eliminating the need for expensive travel and creating a better experience than a traditional video call.

While reality technologies bring the potential for positive change to businesses, they also have several issues that could be problematic. The cost of virtual reality devices and software is simply too high for more businesses to invest heavily in it. On the plus side, investors are seeing the potential of this technology and are willing to contribute funds to make the technology more accessible. Companies that want to implement VR/AR need to prove the value, and there isn’t enough information available to do so. As businesses start to experience success with the technology, they will need to track metrics to show success.

Another potential downside is that virtual reality has the potential to eliminate jobs, or at the very least, to change the nature of many occupations. If virtual shopping takes off, for example, the brick-and-mortar retail industry could suffer even more than it already has. Interior designers might be made obsolete. The tourism industry could suffer a decline if people believe they can get a similar experience from wearing headsets while sitting on their couches. Engineers/product designers who are in the habit of using certain software programs and/or physical materials will need to learn new technological skills to design products using VR and AR. However, many analysts are confident in the potential for virtual reality and augmented reality to create jobs rather than to take them away. It is difficult to predict the types of jobs that will become available in the future, but those who have a good grasp on these technologies are likely to succeed.

Overall, the impact of virtual/augmented reality is still widely unpredictable, but the possibilities are promising. Businesses that are able to successfully be “early adopters” of this technology will likely set the precedent for the future. Product design and development, marketing and customer experience, HR functions, and ecommerce are the most likely to experience changes as this technology becomes more and more accessible.

Classroom Implications

Students should understand what exactly virtual reality and augmented reality are. They should test out an example, such as Pokémon Go or the IKEA place app, which are both able to be used for free on a smart device. Even Snapchat and Instagram include augmented reality features (Lenses) that students probably use on a daily basis without even realizing it. After experimenting with these tools, students should brainstorm ways that this technology can be used in different business functions. They might provide examples of augmented reality marketing campaigns that they have seen or witnessed already.

Students should also spend some time reviewing past technological revolutions and how they impacted different industries and business activities. Doing so can help them consider how great of an impact VR/AR can have on retail, marketing, HR, etc. They should understand the value of embracing new technologies rather than being resistant to them. Finally, students should understand how knowledge of VR/AR could help them become more employable in the future.

Links for further learning:

Example technology — Microsoft HoloLens:

The future of virtual reality in business:

How reality technology is used in business:

Examples of augmented reality campaigns:

If you were an educator in attendance at MBA Research’s Conclave 2017 in Vancouver, Washington, you may remember one of our business speakers, Rick Turoczy. Rick is the Cofounder of PIE (Portland Incubator Experiment). Rick also helped cofound Oregon Story Board, a company committed to mentoring, teaching and advocating for VR in education. Oregon Story Board is a great resource for use in learning more about innovation in VR education.

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